The Statue Project
The Winchester Jewish Trail proved an inspiration for the statue project. There are many sites of Jewish interest in the City, which is not surprising given the significance and duration of the community in what was then one of the foremost cities in England. These include the Great Hall, where business transactions often took place, the castle, where the Archa containing records of loans was placed, the Cathedral, which contains medieval paintings of Jews, and Jewry Street, where the synagogue was located and Licoricia lived. A Jewish token was found during excavations in Brook Street, Winchester, which is in the care of the Winchester Excavations Committee.
Suzanne Bartlet was the first female Leader of Hampshire County Council and wrote the fascinating book ‘Licoricia of Winchester’ (Valentine Mitchell; London, Portland Oregon, 2009). In it she provides a compelling portrait of a lady who was eminent in her time, dealt frequently with Royalty, and whilst being a successful businesswoman in her own right, in her union with David of Oxford married one of the richest men in England. Her husband Leslie collaborated with her in her research and drew her attention to Licoricia.
It was a combination of realising how significant the medieval Jewish community were, and how little memory and evidence is left of the community today, that provided the genesis of the Charity.
The Charity was incorporated in August 2017, and Ian Rank-Broadley was commissioned to produce a maquette of Licoricia and her son Asser.
We are immensely excited by the prospect of highlighting Licoricia as a gateway to her forgotten medieval community, and by so doing linking to Winchester’s royal past, as well as promoting diversity and understanding, inspiring women and young people, and enhancing its busy location. Many thanks must go to Hampshire County Council for their help in offering the site for the sculpture and assistance to the Trustees.
Progress with the project
Dr Hannah Meyer delivered a fascinating talk on Licoricia and the Winchester Jewish Community to over eighty people at the Winchester Discovery Centre on Saturday 15 September 2018 as part of Winchester Open Days.
Since then we held a successful unveiling of the maquette in London, attended by many people including members of the Board of Deputies, and received the backing of both the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Chief Rabbi. Having raised £100,000 of our budget of £140,000, we have commissioned Ian Rank-Broadley to sculpt the life-sized statue prior to its being cast in bronze, and are making good progress in designing the plinth with the help of Hampshire County Council.
We are now continuing to apply to charities and individuals to raise the money required for the statue, and progressing our educational work, with the aim to unveil in late 2021.
We have developed messages that we will seek to promulgate through our work:
Messages from history
- Jews were part of the English community from 1067 until 1290, having arrived after the Norman Conquest in 1066 nearly a thousand years ago. They contributed to the building of iconic places of worship such as Westminster Abbey and Lincoln Cathedral, and also other institutions, as well as to trade and culture.
- Licoricia (who died in 1277) was a leader in her community and one of a handful of Jews, including women, prominently involved in finance. The Jews were restricted in the jobs they could do. Other occupations included doctors, teachers, scribes, poets, vintners, metalworkers and tradesmen.
- Licoricia was highly educated, like many Jewish women of her time, enabling them to be successful in their own right.
- Jews were the property of the King, frequently persecuted by the Church, and taxed at will until they were too poor to be of any utility. As a result, those who would not convert to Christianity were forced out of the country by the Edict of Expulsion issued by King Edward I in 1290.
Lessons for today
- Jews of the Middle Ages are an early example of a religious minority in the UK, and their story highlights the danger of the majority limiting the freedom of the minority (“the tyranny of the majority”).
- As a minority, the Jews made an outsized contribution to England’s society and economy. Diversity of community creates cultural and commercial benefits.
- Many prejudices against the Jews originated in the Middle Ages, and shaped anti-semitism, which still exists today. Education is the key to the elimination of prejudice.
- Progress on religious and racial tolerance has been made in society – today the UK is a vibrant multi-faith, multi-ethnic and multi-racial society – but there is further work to be done.
- The education of women has provided them with opportunity. As a result, progress has been made by women in business and other areas of public life, but 800 years after Licoricia lived, women are still striving for equality.
Winchester’s Historic Jewish Community
A fascinating book is Derek Keene’s Survey of Medieval Winchester (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1985), which shows a map of the medieval Jewry in Winchester:
We are indebted to Suzanne Bartlet, author of the book, “Licoricia of Winchester” for the information set out below.
The first evidence we have that Jews came over to England in significant number was following the Norman Conquest. They are reputed to have been invited to the country in order to encourage trade. They initially settled in London but by 1159 they had formed nine communities that were self-governing in Jewish matters, one of which was in Winchester. According to Suzanne Bartlet, most historians estimate that the Jewish population peaked at around 5,000 in 1200, compared to a population of around 4-5 million, although some consider this figure to be an underestimate.
The Jews were in a very precarious situation. Jews were to some extent restricted as to the trades they could carry out in this country (they were not allowed to own land for long enough to make it worthwhile for example) but they were in a wide range of trades, such as merchants in wine, wheat and wool; craftsmen in gold, silver and leather; much sought after doctors and midwives; scribes and agents; and money lenders. The latter trade came about because certain forms of lending were regarded as a sin by the Church (this developed in the thirteenth century) and Christians were forbidden to engage in them by the Pope. Most credit did not pass through Jewish hands in medieval Europe, however, as the field contained many others including Italians, Christian military orders, Cistercians, and local merchants, moneychangers and bankers. Jews were however able to provide funds for royalty, and for building castles, cathedrals and abbeys on an unprecedented scale. There were rules governing their lending activities such as a restriction on the amount of interest they could charge and how long they could hold land for once called in for unpaid debt.
The proportion of the Jewish population engaging in financial dealing is contested, especially given that many were informal or occasional moneylenders, like in the Christian community. Only a few families, probably 1%, were wealthy enough however to be top moneylenders.
The Jewish community provided an important source of private funds for the King and in return were granted his protection in his castles and other sanctuaries when they were threatened. The price for protection was substantial. They were regularly heavily and unpredictably taxed and the King took a proportion of their estate (generally a third but it could be as much as all of it) on death. In this way, they provided a private income for the King and his relatives. Winchester was important in this regard because in early medieval times the Royal mint and treasury was based there. King Henry III was born in Winchester Castle in 1207 and spent much time in the city. Jews providing finance to the king, including Licoricia, would conduct their meetings in Winchester’s Great Hall which still exists today.
It is not known when Licoricia, whose unusual name is associated with the term “sweetmeat”, was born but she first appears in Winchester in 1234 as a young widow, with three sons and a daughter by her first marriage. By 1234 she had enough money and business acumen to be operating a money lending business in her own right. She is usually referred to as “Licoricia of Winchester” because Winchester was her main place of business. Jewish business women were not unusual and Winchester boasted a number of successful ones at the time. The education of Jewish women was encouraged and Licoricia would have been able to speak several languages (at least norman french, latin, vernacular english and, it is presumed, hebrew) and would have learnt her trade from her family and community. As records show, she was a formidable advocate. She settled in Jewry Street (then the main north-south thoroughfare) in a stone house on a large plot of land of around an acre on the west side of the street (opposite to where the statue will stand).
Many of Licoricia’s clients were landowners and minor gentry. Her first recorded loan was for a sum of £10 – this would be enough to pay for a new, fully fitted ship. Licoricia married David of Oxford, one of England’s richest Jews, in 1242 (please see the fascinating website on Jewish Oxford). Sadly, the marriage only lasted 2 years as David died in 1244, leaving Licoricia with her new son, Asser. As happened when a windfall to the Crown was expected, Licoricia was taken to the Tower of London whilst David’s estate was sorted out. In David’s case Licorcia paid the sum of 5,000 marks (£3,500) and Licoricia herself paid a further forced contribution of over £2,500 in inheritance tax. Most of the money went to pay for the building of Westminster Abbey and its rich shrine to Edward the Confessor. After David’s death Licoricia formed a close working relationship with Henry III and his Queen Eleanor and relatives. She became a leading figure in the community. Her business went well until the advent of the Barons’ Wars which had a severe detrimental effect on the Jewish community. One spring day, early in 1277 she was found murdered in her house in Jewry Street. As Licoricia was such a prominent Jew, her death attracted a lot of attention, the news even spreading to the continent. The motive for her murder is not known.
Less research has been conducted into the life of Licoricia’s son Asher. He appears to have acted as Licoricia’s agent on some transactions. The lives of the Jews were increasingly restricted and he had to move from one town to another as Jews were gradually expelled. It seems likely that he was finally forced to leave the country with the rest of the Jewish community in 1290.
There were many reasons why relationships with the Jews deteriorated in the latter half of the 13th century. First of all, they were taxed so heavily that they became less useful and there was mounting competition in money lending from abroad. Secondly, they were unpopular with the barons and the increasingly meaningful parliament because they gave the King access to his own source of money. Thirdly, they were accused of coin clipping and this caused a violent pogrom and many deaths. Although there is no evidence to suggest that Jews were engaged in coin clipping any more than their Christian neighbours, and in fact, as money lenders, it was not in their interests to do so, they were ten times more likely to be accused of it. Finally, they were unpopular with the Church, who made it increasingly difficult for Jews to survive by banning them from lending money at interest or, for example, from buying food from Christians. As they could not farm, they risked starvation. In 1290 the Church promised King Edward an enormous sum of money to get rid of them. He took the money and expelled the Jews. They were not allowed back into this country until the mid-seventeenth century when, inter alia, just as William the Conqueror had done, they were invited back in to increase trade.
The plight of the Jews at this time is reflected in a poem by Meir of Norwich:
‘The land exhausts us by demanding payments, and the people’s disgust is heard
While we are silent and wait for the light.
You are mighty and full of light. You turn the darkness into light.
They make our yoke heavier, they are finishing us off.
They continually say of us, let us despoil them until the morning light.
You are mighty and full of light. You turn the darkness into light.
When he writes ‘You’ he is referring to G-d.
This was a sad end to the medieval Jewish community and perhaps because of this, its history has been buried for centuries. Small traces however still remain in Jewish tradition, such as the Passover song Ki Lo Na’eh, first mentioned in the book Etz Chaim by Rabbi Jacob ben Judah of London in 1287, and still sung today
However, we live in a more open society nowadays and this offers us the opportunity to tell the story of Licoricia as a representative of the community of long ago, and give people a greater understanding of the rich history of the medieval Jewish community, its relationship with Winchester and its royal past and to understand the roots of some of the prejudices against Jews that began in the Medieval era and still exist today. This understanding, we hope, will help to fashion a greater understanding, tolerance and compassion towards the Jewish community and help to reduce all prejudice in our society.